Instead they had small mounds that capped burned and ritually dismantled structures functionally equivalent to those found on the platform (temple) mounds at the larger centers.
At the bottom of the social ladder were small but widely distributed rural communities made up of many farmsteads and hamlets often spread out along smaller streams and across productive upland areas.
Midden mounds up to one meter in height were common on Titus phase settlements before they began to be plowed in historic times.
Excavations suggest that many activities occurred outside the houses, resulting in trash-filled pits, hearths, and posts in these areas, where ramadas and granaries may also have been present, along with concentrations of artifacts and debris.
Residential structures had some midden accumulation on their floors (i.e., house middens), which were not prepared or clay-lined, but the vast majority of the daily trash and refuse was deposited on the nearby trash midden mound.
When Pedro Vial visited the Nadaco Caddo "village" near the Sabine River in 1788 (probably in the vicinity of Longview and Marshall, Texas), he described it as having thirteen to fifteen houses scattered over a distance of three leagues (about eight miles).
One of the more intensively investigated large Titus phase settlements is the Pilgrim's Pride site along Big Cypress Creek at its confluence with Walkers Creek.
Residential areas at the site cover between 5-10 acres, with more than 100 pit features, several circular structures, midden deposits, and more than 20 burials, along with an open plaza-like area.
The small settlements appear to have been home to one or several family compounds marked today by scattered house middens often containing daub (fired clay) and trash-heap (midden) mounds.Several of these (if not all four) appear to be made of Edwards chert from central Texas.Polished red bottle with negative engraved scrolls. Of the several hundred identified sites with Titus phase occupations, the largest concentration occurs in the Cypress Bayou (or Big Cypress Creek) Valley.Three circular houses were uncovered on one side of a small plaza. Titus phase pottery from cemetery at the Russell site. The University of Texas excavated this site in 1931 and documented 64 graves.On the opposite side was a "special building" with an extended entranceway and supports for interior benches. The red Avery Engraved bowl in the middle is probably a trade piece from the Mc Curtain phase area in the Red River Valley to the north. Note the consistent east-west grave orientation and the fact that the graves do not intrude into one another.
In contrast, the small and large settlements were occupied year-round.